Category Archives: group work

The art of questioning

Posted by: Associate Professor Andrea Chester, Deputy Pro Vice Chancellor, Learning and Teaching, Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

Over the years I have read quite a bit on the use of questions in education. There are a number of useful websites that describe the importance of questioning in teaching and defining different types of questions. The UNSW L&T Unit has one, as does Cornell’s Center for Teaching Excellence.

make-just-one-change-smAs part of the toolkit of a student-centred teacher, questioning has long been considered a core skill for all teachers from primary through to the tertiary context. So central is the skill that Mary Jane Aschner (1961) described educators as ‘professional question makers’. I know from experience how a well-chosen question can open up a rich discussion and how the wrong question can close it down.

What I hadn’t spent much time thinking about was how to encourage students to ask their own questions.  That is, until I read Make just one change: Teach students to ask their own questions by Dan Rothstein and Luz Santana.

Rothstein and Santana argue teaching can be transformed if students, rather than teachers, assume responsibility for questioning. They argue that asking questions is fundamentally empowering and that all students can and should learn to formulate their own questions and that all teachers can integrate development of the skill into their regular teaching practice. While the book is pitched at teachers of K-12, the ideas can easily be applied to tertiary teaching.

The book and associated online resources available through the Right Question Institute set out the seven-step Question Formulation Technique (QFT™) summarised below.

Step

Description

Principle

Approximate time allocation

  • Begin with a question focus (QFocus)
This is the work you do to develop a stimulus, which can be a topic, a sentence, an image or an object, depending on your purpose, but generally not a question itself.  -  (varies)
  • Share and discuss the rules for producing questions
There are four rules:

  • ask as many questions as you can
  • do not stop to discuss, judge or answer questions
  • write down each question exactly as it is stated
  • change any statements as questions 
Meta-cognition 5-7 minutes
  • Produce Questions
In small groups students produce as many questions as they like within the available time. Divergent thinking 5-8 minutes
  • Categorise Questions
In this step students are encouraged to improve their questions by labeling each as either open or closed and discussing the differences between these two types of questions. Students are encouraged to change some questions from one type to the other to explore the difference in possible responses. Analysis and convergence 5-10 minutes
  • Prioritise Questions
Students prioritise their questions, articulate their rationale and select the three most important questions. They note where these questions occurred in their original list of questions, at the beginning, middle or end. - 5 minutes
  • Next Steps
Here students consider how they will use their questions. This depends on your purpose for engaging in the activity. Application Will depend on purpose of QFT™
  • Reflection
Finally students reflect on what they learned and how they can use it. Meta-cognition 5-8 minutes

The entire sequence can be completed in 30 minutes, with a reduction as you and the students become more familiar with the process.

When you might want to use the QFT™
The QFT™ can be used to:

  • generate interest at the start of a course

    Click on the image to see Dan Rothstein's TEDx presentation: "Asking questions is the single most powerful renewable source of intellectual energy: It's in our minds we can create it, we can create it continuously..."

    Click on the image to see Dan Rothstein’s TEDx presentation: “Asking questions is the single most powerful renewable source of intellectual energy: It’s in our minds we can create it, we can create it continuously…”

  • introduce a new topic
  • assess and/or deepen understanding
  • stimulate new thinking
  • prepare for an assessment task
  • conclude a topic or course.

What to know more?

References:

Aschner, M. J. (1961). Asking questions to trigger thinking. National Education Association (NEA) Journal, 50, 44-46.

Share your thoughts and questions in the comments section!
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What will the campus of the future look like?

Guest Post: Jo Dane is a designer, educator and researcher with a passion for educational transformation enabled through research-based design practice. Jo works at woodsbagot.com and tweets @WB_JoDane.

Jo_Dane_Twitter_PicI’m a design educator and someone who’s regularly tasked with putting together a vision of physical spaces for students. Ideally, these new spaces are supposed to be ‘future-proof’. So it can be fun to do some crystal-gazing about the future of the university campus.

Here are some observations, speculations and predictions that I’ll commit to the blogosphere in 2014:

1. Students will be empowered with choices of how, when and where to learn.
It will be increasingly possible to get a degree at University X which includes undertaking core subjects at University Y or via accredited MOOCs. If the quality of the learning experience (and facilities and spaces will be part of that equation) doesn’t stack up, students will shift their allegiance to another institution. And the funding will follow the student.

2. Hybrid learning experiences will be the new norm.
On-campus delivery will increasingly incorporate online components such as response software in lectures, multimedia content, group collaboration and teacher consultation. Digital platforms will continue to improve and enable both synchronous and asynchronous learning encounters.

3. Learning will be social and happen with other students IN REAL TIME.
For too long learning has happened in isolation in students’ homes while studying for exams, or preparing essays and assignment work. It has long been recognised that learning is a social experience. A room full of students is also a room full of teachers. Interaction between students broadens each student’s perspective and provides an opportunity to share and reinforce important concepts.

Click to see more pictures of MUSE, a Woods Bagot project completed this year.

MUSE – Macquarie University Spatial Experience, Sydney, 2014

Real time learning will happen in the classroom when a) the teacher facilitates the interactive learning experience and b) the classroom is designed to enable such encounters.

4. The notion of a 24-7, ‘sticky campus’ will endure.
Students (especially undergraduates) will be encouraged to stay on campus for longer periods of time. They will continue to blur boundaries between learning, socialising and working. The campus, therefore, will provide ‘sticky’ spaces where students can undertake both serendipitous and asynchronous activities. These will include media hubs for small groups to collectively engage in online material, or to Skype subject experts/overseas peers.

Click to see more pictures of MUSE, a Woods Bagot project completed this year.

MUSE – Macquarie University Spatial Experience, Sydney, 2014

5. Mobile devices, ‘Bring Your Own Device’ and cloud computing mean that students can access specialist software anywhere, anytime.
Students need no longer be tethered to the dehumanising lab computer, but can choose where and with whom to study, whilst accessing critical digital infrastructure.

6. Say goodbye to lecture theatres and computer labs!
While this might seem to counter to the ‘sticky campus’ idea (but really it should clarify the purpose of bringing students together) students are voting with their feet and where possible opting to tune into lectures online rather than face-to-face. Not only this, the prevalence of high quality (free) content, through YouTube, TED Talks, MOOCs and a plethora of other online repositories means that students are finding expert content from alternative sources rather than from the prescribed teachers. Universities will increasingly share exemplary content rather than rely on academics reinventing content every year.

7. Augmented learning, wearable technologies, 3d printing and gaming experiences are coming.
These are recognised trends on the horizon. We might not know exactly what they will look like, nor the impact they will have on the campus environment. Get used to this feeling. The better you adapt to change, uncertainty and the unforeseeable, the more agile you are. Agility is a key trait needed for the emerging knowledge economy.

Screen Shot 2014-03-16 at 5.16.10 pm

Media & Communication staff at RMIT discuss learning spaces in the Swanston Academic Building.

8. Academics will work increasingly in teams, sharing and collaborating in teaching and research activities.
The academic workplace will need to provide for a younger generation of academics who are more collaborative and connected than any previous generation. The next generation of academics won’t be hidden away in confined offices. The campus will include ‘third spaces’ — extensions of the workplace where workers can seek alternative environments to promote innovation and problem-solving.

9. Academics will be more accessible to students, but will connect through digital means moreso than face-to-face.
For teachers and lecturers, the skills of delivering remotely and facilitating online discussions will be as crucial as your in-class toolkit. This means your potential reach increases (and so does your profile) but of course that there’s another set of skills that are currently seen as optional.

10. This one’s a fill-in-the-blank, left for you, the reader…
Posts like this can often live on through the comments thread — why not make your own prediction (or disagree with/clarify one of my own) by commenting below.

Share your thoughts and predictions in the comments section!
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What does ‘good’ look like?

Posted by: Ruth Moeller, Lecturer in Education and Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

Series of sticky notes all saying 'good'.Let me begin with an anecdote.

Several years ago, I returned to study to do a post graduate course in Organisational Behaviour. I remember the first assessment clearly, we had to write an analysis of a group situation, I think it was about 1500 words.  I remember the anxiety, I had no idea of what I was doing. I had done the reading, attended the classes, consulted fellow students but in writing my analysis I made the best go of it I could but really had no idea of what was required.

I missed the class when the work was returned, so had to catch up with the lecturer at another time – I still remember the nervousness and trepidation I felt in waiting for my paper, and I did ask her, ‘Just tell me if I passed or if I have to do it again.’ When I got the paper back I got an HD, I still don’t know how, and I suspect that the lecturer regretted the mark, when she realised that I didn’t really know what I was doing!

The purpose of this anecdote was not to tell you I got an HD or to share my neuroses, but rather to make the point that when assessing and grading students they need to know what is expected and to what standard. Or to put it another way, ‘What does “good” look like?’

This is particularly important for students transitioning: from school to tertiary studies, from vocational to higher education or from one year level to the next. Expectations can be different, so we shouldn’t assume that students will understand what is required of them.

To help, consider these three questions:

  1. What criteria are you using? Are you assessing a product, application of theory, diverse reading, critical analysis, spelling and grammar, team work? Make this clear to the students and then they can aim to demonstrate what they can (or can’t) do, rather than try to guess what you want.

  2. What does ‘good’ look like?  You may have assessment criteria but when you are grading, could you explain to a student the difference between a Credit and a Distinction?  “It’s just the vibe of the thing…” (Dennis Denuto in The Castle) isn’t a satisfactory explanation.  This is often highlighted when a student questions their grade and asks what was missing. What did they need to do to get a higher grade?  Rubrics can help here.

  3. Can you explain what students have to produce? Even better, are there examples they can look at?  Students like to see what is required. You think you have clearly articulated the requirements but nothing beats a physical example. I get my post grad students to write wiki posts, and until I provided sample posts, I was always fielding questions about what was wanted, even though I thought it was clearly explained in the course guide.

It is Week 2 for Higher Education and Week 5 for Vocational Education, so it’s not too late to review your assessment tasks and see if there are ways to make them student-friendly rather than ‘guess what I want’ tasks.

Resources that can help:

Assessing student work
Rubrics for assessing English language and academic literacies

Share your thoughts on what ‘good’ means in the comments section!
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Games people play Part 2: Let’s pretend

Posted by: Jon Hurford, Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

Metrics

Fitbit Screengrab

Author is comfortably mid-table at 10000 steps a day. Less than Andrea W, more than The Phantom.

Last week was quite a fun post to write and I’m back with the semi-promised ‘Part 2′…

We do often get between 100 and 300 daily hits on a published post at the tomtom. But my post, the 100th post fell a little bit short. But since then there’s been quite a bit of activity and as a number of people pointed out in the comments, my threat to send it to blog-post-Heaven made it seem:

  • like a waste of my effort/their invested time
  • like an arbitrary requirement
  • unfair to demand a group of people to reach an aggregated target
  • churlish for me to take my ball and go home
  • that perhaps at 1400 words I just didn’t know how to end the post?

All true!

What a savvy readership!

And all so relevant to games- Are the rules clear? Are the rules fair? Who thought up these rules? Who’s the umpire? How do I win? How do I quit?

On to what I’d promised, first, extrinsic motivations and measurements.

There’s already a game in place in TAFE and HE that our students play. The game called, for instance, ‘Bachelor of X’ runs for three years, it’s assessed by former players and it will cost you upwards of $30 000 AUD. Insert as many asterisks as you’d like, but essentially you quit by dropping out, you win by graduating, you can cheat in a number of ways and at the end you’re awarded a badge called a degree.

A cynical sketch of the tertiary experience, yes. Shoulder angels should rightly counter with the intangibles and the intrinsic benefits that come with a tertiary experience. University is where students can grapple with ideas, create new knowledge, speak truth to power etcetera.

Click here to visit GEElab. Opens in a new window.

‘Trouble Tower’ app from RMIT’s GEElab.

It would be depressing (or worse) if we held the first view front of mind and didn’t encourage the myriad benefits related to what learning institutions offer. But you’ll find plenty of posts on the tomtom where you can read about graduate attributes, lifelong learning and that sort of thing!

Caveats

My point though is that adding another layer of achievements as instructors is problematic for a system that already has clear thresholds, ladders and badges. Completion of credit points, Competent/Not Yet Competent, Pass to High Distinction: these are the real points of the game. Universities bear the legacy of ranks and hierarchies in their inherited Latin and medieval terms. Just as more recently we have had the AQF imposing a kind of metric system of levels 1-10 on these old terms from guilds, knights and churches.

So an easier conclusion to this post would be for me to write about what could go wrong with adding a game element to your course. That it’s ‘pointsification‘, that it’s infantile, that there’ll be unintended consequences. That it makes university into (even moreso) a token economy. That carrots and sticks are for donkeys. Adding gameful design to your course won’t make up for opaque course outcomes or dated course materials.

But I did promise to explain why an individual instructor might still be interested in adding some sort of a game mechanic to their course.

Click to read the article at news.Discovery.com

A 5000 year old Bronze-Age game: “According to distribution, shape and numbers of the stone pieces, it appears that the game is based on the number 4.” Haluk Sağlamtimur, Ege University İzmir, Turkey. Click above to read the full article.

Case 1: You enjoy games (boardgames, word games or computer games) and recognise that games can add an element of fun to tasks. You want to allow students to learn, track their learning or to present the results of their learning in a modality that’s closer to one in which they’re spending some of their leisure time.

Case 2: You recognise that there’s an element of your course that’s an ‘eat-your-vegetables’ proposition: it needs to be done and many of your students find it difficult. As a result, it’s often skipped over by students or it becomes a point where their performance dips or where they disengage. It might be something like acquiring the appropriate vocabulary for a unit, or acquiring a set of technological skills that are required that can be applied later in the unit. You think that maybe some healthy competition or a bit of incentivising could do the trick.

To address the latter case, it’s worthwhile noting that psychologists talk about the overjustification effect, where extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation. As one of the examples in Alfie Kohn’s very quotable ‘Punished by Rewards’ goes:

Asked about the likely results of Pizza Hut’s popular food-for-reading program, educational psychologist John Nicholls replied, only half in jest, that it would probably produce “a lot of fat kids who don’t like to read.” (Kohn, 1999)

Kohn’s book has a bigger target of praise and gold stars in schools and performance bonuses in the workplace but his arguments that this type of vegetables-for-dessert bargaining is essentially coercive (and stacked in favour of society’s dominant power structure) and that the results are either counter-productive or short-lived (they end when the reward ends) are certainly worth keeping in mind. You’d better be careful about incentivising an aspect of the course that part of your cohort actually enjoys already for instance.

In response to the first case, I think it’s important to recognise the range of games and the types of players you’re likely to be teaching. It will be impossible to design a semester-long game that engages all of the players, all of the time. Even a leader in the field, Kevin Werbach (whose videos and articles will point you in the right direction) shies away from using an actual game mechanic in his MOOC: Gamification (run through The University of Pennsylvania on Coursera).

Conclusions

So why, as a teacher or lecturer, would you be looking to introduce game-mechanics to your classroom? The short answer is that I think it gives you another way to experiment with your teaching in a way that brings students along for the journey.

If you begin by asking ‘What is the problem that I’m trying to solve in my class?’ you might end up with a dilemma like:

*Survey results indicate that students don’t feel I’m giving enough feedback to them.
OR
*I’m not getting the quality of answers/creative output that I’d expect from this level of students.

What I think game design opens up here is the possibility for you not to simply answer ‘I’ll work harder.’ Making a game of it means you will work with students and you will help them to work with each other to solve problems.  For you, this problem of practice may or may not be openly shared with them- you’ll find a way to link it appropriately to their real success in their course or program.

I think that’s one of the powerful things about games. The ‘let’s pretend’ aspect of them imagines a world where things are simpler and clearer. Where things work. Where there are bright lines, winners and losers but also camaraderie among the players (and the umpires). It’s where achieving 10000 steps with a pedometer or staying ahead of an opponent in a ladder can be the askew goal that keeps you on track for the ‘real’ goal.

I’ll post my ‘feedback game’ ideas in the comments but to bring it back to Skinner (the Principal from The Simpsons, not the behaviorist) his error was not in the silliness of the game (all games are silly) but in assigning a game that he didn’t play himself, that he didn’t play alongside his student. And that’s the great opportunity of games in higher education — more time playing alongside instead of umpiring. Let’s continue this particular game in the comments section…

Share your thoughts about games, gameful design and gamification in the comments!

Games people play

Posted by: Jon Hurford, Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

This post has been split into two parts:

Part 1: In which I outline some of my own feelings about games in the classroom.
Part 2: Which may be published tomorrow and will cover the why and how of introducing a game mechanic to your class or course…

Screenshot at 99 posts

Screenshot on the eve of 100 posts.

Games to kill time

First, this scene from an episode of The Simpsons:

[Bart has forgotten his permission slip for the class excursion to the chocolate factory and has to stay at school.]

Principal Skinner: Here’s a whole box of unsealed envelopes for the PTA.
Bart: You’re making me lick envelopes?
Skinner: Oh, licking envelopes can be fun! All you have to do is make a game of it.
Bart: What kind of game?
Skinner: Well, for example, you could see how many you could lick in an hour, then try to break that record.
Bart: Sounds like a pretty crappy game to me.
Skinner: Yes, well… Get started.  -’Bart the Murderer’ (Writer: John Swartzwelder, 1991)

Games bloggers play

For a while I’ve wanted to set down some thoughts about games and their place in the classroom. If you blog with WordPress you’ll know that you get a little badge and some words of encouragement each time you publish a post.

It’s not necessarily an earned reward either. The person who pushes the button usually isn’t the same one who wrote the post and nevermind that I only joined the team a year or so ago — in this case I’m the author and the lucky duck that gets to see 100 posts tick over. Similarly with ‘followers’ and site statistics, these two metrics of the online world are easily gained, easily gamed, but addictive regardless. At last count the tomtom has a few hundred followers spread across WordPress, Twitter and Facebook.

Fitting then that I flag the importance of fairness and that with the 100th post from the tomtom team, I weigh in on games and ‘gamification’, a topic that we haven’t really dealt with explicitly.

Paper-based games

A few years before that episode of The Simpsons, I was in 6th grade. At some point in that year, one afternoon, my teacher brought out a blue ice-cream container with cut-up pieces of paper and announced that we were going to play ‘The Fractions Game’. I got along well with my teacher and I sat at a group table near the front of the class.

But this game sounded boring and it sounded like something I wouldn’t be very good at. Plus I probably felt like this was my time to score a point in the more important social game called ’6th grade’.

I didn’t do anything elaborate: I just groaned dramatically and said ‘Not this game.’ (I’d never actually played ‘The Fractions Game’, but the title was a giveaway: these were vegetables masquerading as dessert.)

In my memory this next bit is in slow-motion. Mrs P. shouted something like ‘Right!’ and tossed the bucket of cut-up paper into the air. The pieces rained down on our group’s table and on her head and shoulders. A bit like confetti or ticker tape. But more like something very bad had just happened.

I’d never had this effect on a teacher. So unexpected and such a literal explosion. My group and I started gathering up the paper — but the ‘Right!’ was just the start of the sentence sending me to the principal’s office. And to make clear that this story is not about rewriting my history to represent me as anything like a cool and calm kid, I was definitely in tears at this point.

I was sent home that day with a note (more tears!) asking my mum to come in the next morning. I remember apologising, I remember Mrs P. explaining that she’d spent a lot of time on preparing that game.

I was an enthusiastic participant in any game Mrs. P suggested for the remainder of the year.

Computer games

The games we really enjoyed were on the Apple IIgs at the back of the classroom: Gold Dust Island and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego. We got to play in pairs or trios I think. Gold Dust Island – especially good — had you marooned and managing water, food, treasure-hunting and shipbuilding. Looking back on the two games they’re both pretty meagre fare educationally. Carmen Sandiego was a bunch of trivia about the flags and currencies of countries and I remember that digging for gold in Gold Dust Island usually prevented us from spending the necessary time on woodcutting and shipbuilding. Still there were early lessons in opportunity costs and logic in both.

Time on the computers was probably based on some sort of behaviourist carrot and dependent on our ability to coöperate sotto voce and get off that island/find Ms Sandiego while the rest of the class were reading or doing maths problems.

I could go on about the computers and other games we played. We had the usual typing tutors and ‘drill & kill’ games. Students of my generation can usually count at least a few skills gained solely through games. Off the top of my head, for me, it would be typing speed and a smidgin of music theory. At home (or at a friend’s house) we played the increasingly sophisticated simulation games of the ’80s like SimCity. For many of my friends, games were their pathway into programming, through a language like Logo.  Many can trace a path from these experiences through to their current professions.

But If Mrs P. is reading this, she should take heart that it was her teaching strategies, her passion and the class conversations that I remember most about 6th grade and not a computer screen. ‘The Fractions Game’ was an off-day. I have vivid memories of her reading to us (Thurley Fowler’s The Green Wind (probably more tears)) and that she was a ruthless critic of my juvenile writing for instance. See how far I’ve come!

She should know too, that as an English and History teacher years later, I would stay up late making revision crosswords or flashcards that stumped my students and made me question what progress we’d made. That I ran in-class games that were unappreciated by most, or that simply crashed and burned. That I set the creation of games as assessments with very mixed results and that we played these games-of-variable-quality (set maybe in Ancient Egypt or Rome) in the final days of a term and that yes, they usually left the participants cold.

So games are attractive. As educators, it’s natural that we should see them as containers that we can sneak knowledge into, perhaps a foreign language or some critical thinking skills. Which is a roundabout way of bringing this post to ‘gamification’ and its place in TAFE and Higher Education.

But first more disclosure

I’ve recently participated in the ‘Global Corporate Challenge’. I wear a fitness monitor to track steps every day. I work on a project that is trialling badges and quests to lift the engagement of users in a professional learning approach.

All three of these activities are trying to use a game mechanic (ie points, leaderboards, quests) to increase the level of engagement/’stickiness’/personal commitment or fun. There are many more examples of gamification being used by institutions, corporations and by governments to alter behaviour.

So gamification often tries to take something most of the population experiences as tiresome or time-consuming or not intrinsically satisfying (exercise, professional development, sorting your recycling or paying your tax) and attaches an extrinsic reward to it.

And now, a game!

If this, the 100th post of the teaching tomtom gets more than 100 hits today, Thursday 3 October, I will publish Part 2 on Friday. If not, I’m following Mrs P.’s lead and throwing it to the winds! Lost to the ages!

In Part 2 I will discuss some caveats of extrinsic rewards; why and how one still might like to introduce game mechanics to a HE or TAFE course and I’ll share another anecdote about me as a learner. This time, a lecturer at university takes me to task for doing the crossword before his lecture begins.

Stay tuned/click refresh/leave a comment.

Share your thoughts about Part 1 in the comments…

There’s an app for that…

Posted by: Howard Errey, Educational Developer, Learning and Teaching, Design and Social Context College, RMIT University.

This post focuses particularly on use of the iPad for educators although some of what I share will be relevant for Android devices and smartphones. The ‘digital divide’ is a real issue and one that I’d like to take up in a future post- but increasingly most students will have more than one mobile device. So for ‘iPad’, read ‘iPad, tablet and increasingly smartphones’.

RMIT's Open2Study Course: Foundations of PsychologyOften staff are interested in how they can adopt new technology but are concerned about not having enough time to learn and make successful changes in their teaching. One of the things I have found about the iPad is that it has improved my productivity as well as provided new ways to transfer learning. The challenge, as with a lot of new technology, is putting in the investment of time before the payoff in effectiveness can occur.

There are a couple of examples where I have been involved with iPad use in education that have been illustrative of both the challenges and advantages of adopting iPads. Often iPads are introduced with a simple focus that fails to address the complexity of issues the device also creates as well as the potential complex advantages.  In the Open2study free online Foundations of Psychology course, you can see the iPad being used primarily so that the academic can continue to face the camera while delivering the content. However in several of the early Open2study courses the iPad was merely being used as a whiteboard without taking more advantage of the functional strength and flexibility of the device.

I’ve also been involved in vocational settings where iPads have been handed out to students as a paper and cost-saving activity.  Loading electronic versions of textbooks was going to be cheaper than the provision of textbooks and workbooks. As the devices get cheaper and as the publishers shift to eTextbooks this trend will continue. In this case students were not given enough context and training in using the device and teachers were initially resistant due to a lack of support and preparation. What these instances highlight is the need to be clear (from the teaching team’s perspective) about what moving to devices like this means to their delivery model.

Productivity

I find that the iPad helps my productivity in several ways. One example is that I like to use the Evernote app for note-taking. Evernote is a wonderful tool for collating all sorts of notes. It works across all devices or in a browser and saves notes to the cloud. When I go to a meeting and start a new note Evernote automatically brings the meeting title from my calendar into the note’s heading – making it easier to just begin and know that when I am back at my desktop the notes are already saved and ready to use. I also find the iPad very fast for making presentations – faster than on my laptop or desktop. More on that below.

Challenges in VET and HE

One of the challenging things about the iPad is not having a file system. There are no content folders, no usb port, just apps that you download on to the devices. For a number of reasons, Apple has made this side of the system opaque to users. This means you have to start thinking differently about how you go about things. A part of the solution is to start thinking in combinations of apps. Often you might use two or three different apps to achieve what you want. You might use a third-party camera because it allows for more control over the shot; that shot goes into the iPad’s Photo app and you might use a different third-party app to edit the photo. It’s important then to think in terms of workflows. If you are planning activities with students, you need to consider how you create evidence for what they do on the device (process) as well as how artefacts are transferred off the device (the final product) into an appropriate place (like Blackboard) for assessment.ipad and moleskine notebook

So remember these three questions when you’re planning an activity:

  1. How will the students get the content onto the device? (Will the students use one of the inbuilt tools on the device: web browser, microphone, camera, video camera, notepad or gps?)
  2. What are the students doing with the content once they have it? (What’s the critical or creative task that they’ll be engaging in on the device? Does it require an app or an internet connection?)
  3. What is the process for getting the work from the device and onto, for instance, their peers’ devices for comment or back to their ePortfolio, or into the Learning Management System? (Will the result for you, as an assessor, be easily viewable? Will you be able to see the process as well as a finished product?)

The best way to increase your capacity with these devices is to use them for yourself in meaningful ways. You’ll find yourself using a version of the steps above in your own use-cases. As well, playing with the device is an important element that makes it easier to discover your own approaches to teaching with the device. Here are three ways that I find the iPad useful as an educational device.

1. Presentations

There are several apps that make creating and running presentations easy and engaging. I like to develop PowerPoint style presentations in Keynote. It makes it easy to quickly move content around and it has a notes function that enables you to read from this while presenting. Haiku Deck is an app that encourages good design using free to use images and less text. If you want to use a PowerPoint you have already created then try SlideShark which will import and run the presentation on the iPad without animations.

students using iPhones.

For running presentations try Penultimate which is like a flipboard that you can write on – and you can also import your slides to write over these. Even more sophisticated is Explain Everything which will enable the same activity and will also record what you do on your screen with your voice as you present. You can then save the presentation and send it to students via email or place it in the LMS.

2. Content specific apps

It’s worth visiting Apple’s App Store (or Google’s equivalent Google Play) and typing in your subject or topics relating to your subject. For example, a chemistry teacher will find dozens of apps relating to molecular bonds. There are many free and low-cost apps that could enliven demonstrations on particular topics, allowing students to perform simulated experiments or used as study aids. Trouble Tower (see a screenshot below) is an example of an RMIT-developed app that looks at Occupational Health & Safety in the context of the Australian construction industry.

3. Playing around

Sometimes an app will demonstrate or provide a purpose in unexpected ways. For example the popular game Angry Birds gives a wonderful demonstration of the principles of physics. Fun, intuitive apps like Comic Life and storyboarding apps are used for quick mock-ups in courses like theatre, literature and cinema studies.  Apps that you might use in your own life might have applicability across a range of disciplines. For example Magic Plan allows you to point the device in a room and accurately measure dimensions to create a floor plan.

A note on Android tablets and smartphones

There are often the same (or equivalent) applications for Android devices. And there are a number of aspects in which the Android platform currently has the lead on Apple; a tighter integration with Google’s online tools is a significant one.

Opens a new window to Trouble Tower in the App Store.

A screenshot from Dr Stefan Greuter’s app ‘Trouble Tower’

Androids have other advantages; they offer more customisation and they play Flash animations. While iPads are often easier to use, Androids can often be better adapted to do specific things you want to do. They can also represent good value if you want basic functionalities without the cost of the iPad.

In closing, start small! Try to modify one activity in your class that you think would be enriched by using mobile technology. A colleague at another university recently told me about an OH&S activity she ran where the students had 10 minutes to walk around the building and snap pictures of hazards on campus. The students messaged the pictures to her which then formed the basis of the group’s discussion. A simple activity like that can begin a process of harnessing the tools we’re carrying in our pockets for quick, real-world learning.

Share your thoughts (or useful apps and learning activities) in the comments section or contact me (Howard Errey on Yammer or on Twitter: @howard61) or your School’s Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching for more information

Don’t forget you can subscribe to have the tomtom delivered to your email as soon as it’s published and you can follow us on facebook: www.facebook.com/TeachingTomTom.

The use of technology in teaching and learning: A game of mix and match

picture of Ehsan

Guest post: Dr Ehsan Gharaie, Lecturer, School of Property, Construction and Project Management, RMIT University.

It seems like there’s a compelling new technology available for teaching every day. New teaching platforms, new software, and more recently new apps.  Add to this, new hardware such as tablets and smartphones.  As educators, we face a huge realm of possibilities and a big confusion, if not a headache: how to keep up? For some people, the question is more profound: should I keep up at all? And if yes, which technology should I choose?

Reflect and decipher

Dr Ehsan GharaieBefore you answer these questions, you need to decipher what happens in your teaching practice. Without reflecting on your own practice you will not be able to make active decisions. And I assure you, without you making these decisions; the decisions will be made for you.

Wait another few years and you will find yourself with a tablet in hand without knowing how to make use of it. The new movement towards MOOCs is one example of  the technology changing and leaving us to follow the trend instead of making active decisions.

To explain what I mean by deciphering your teaching practice, I reflected on my own class to see what exactly happened and then I listed what my students experience. Here is the list, in no particular order, or rather, a list that I could order or rank in many different ways:

My voice
My appearance
A space for their voice to be heard
A space for them to think and learn
My body language
Their body language
The human interaction between me and them
The human interaction between them
The learning environment/atmosphere/space
The lecture slides
The readings
Oral answers to their questions
Written answers to their questions
Class activities
Feedback (one-on-one)
Feedback on their written work
Discussion within their groups
Written communication within their groups.

Mix and match

Dr Ehsan Gharaie at LecternAfter the deciphering (and I would encourage you to do a similar audit of what goes on in a typical class) you need to look at the technology offered and see what the technology can do for you. And what it may prevent you from doing.

If you are a lecturer and the only thing that your students get from your class is your voice and lecture slides, then you could use PowerPoint with your recorded narration, and save yourself and your students, time and hassle. But if your teaching style is based on your personal relationship with students and the learning that happens from students collaborating, then narrated PowerPoint slides would kill your teaching practice.

If you are good at responding to emails and using written explanations of things to students, then an online platform may help your workflow. But if you prefer a teaching style similar to Michael J. Sandel’s (view a lecture from his ‘Justice’ course here) and believe in conversations and discussions during the class, then perhaps moving to an online platform would limit your practice.

The point that I want to make here is that before making any decision for the use of technology, reflect on your practice. Think about how you want students to learn, then look at the proposed technology and see what can be gained. Then it will be a matter of mixing and matching to get a good combination of technology-enabled and traditional teaching.

Wordpress shows the country of origin for your blog's viewers.

And remember, technology is not always there to replace the current practice and make life easier. Sometimes it gives new opportunities and opens new frontiers but this might come at the cost of an investment of time.

We are all confined in time and space. I can only be at one place and one time, but students can play lecture videos anywhere and anytime. In a modest way, even this particular post expands my existence; my audience. These words reach places I would never be able to visit in a single lifetime as an academic. Look at the picture on the left: it shows the country of origin from every viewer of this blog yesterday. Lecturers like Sandel are now reaching tens of thousands of students!

Thus, it is not all gloomy or geeky. Just as we express to our students, learning involves thinking, trying, and even failing at some attempts to succeed in the long run.

Share your comments on deciphering your own teaching and using technology in the comments!

Linking to the recent Sessional Staff Symposium

Connecting Sessional Staff LogoPosted by: Kellyann Geurts, Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching, Design and Social Context College, RMIT University.

The College of Design and Social Context facilitated a Professional Development Symposium for sessional academic and teaching staff on Friday 6 September.

If you missed my last post, the 2013 Connecting Sessional Staff Project aims to:

  • Address individual learning and teaching needs
  • Share, present, discuss and reflect on teaching and learning experiences
  • Support collaboration, peer partnerships and mentoring
  • Connect with other sessional staff and learning networks across the University
  • Link to the online Sessional Modules from the Professional Development for Tertiary Teaching Practice (PDTTP). The Modules are accessible through Blackboard and information is online at: http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/pdttp/sessionals

The symposium workshops were practical and hands-on. They aimed to connect staff with their peers, their curriculum and with their students.

For those who missed the symposium or attended and missed a workshop, here is a brief overview with  the learning outcomes for each.  If you find something  of interest, you can follow the links or even contact the facilitator for more information:

Opening Session

Workshop 1: Technology… you’ve gotta have a Plan B!

Spiros Soulis, Senior Advisor Learning and Teaching, Learning and Teaching Unit

•Design back-up activities to include in lesson plans for when the technology fails
•Know who to call and what to say when you have technical issues in the class
•Identify resources to have on hand to continue to engage your students.

See also:
the teaching tomtom: http://theteachingtomtom.wordpress.com/2012/05/29/technology-you-gotta-love-it-when-it-works/
Teaching with Technology: http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/technology

Workshop 2: Assessment

John Benwell, Principle Learning & Teaching Advisor (Architecture and Design)

•Discuss and know how to use assessment as learning activity and a progress monitor
•Create an assignment in blackboard (with e-submission)
•Discuss and understand academic integrity using Turnitin.

See also:
RMIT University Student Assessment http://www.rmit.edu.au/students/assessment
Center for the Study of Higher Education, Melbourne University http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/resources_teach/assessment/
Turnitin http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/technology/turnitin

Workshop 3: Engaging your students using Inclusive Teaching practices

Andrea Wallace, Educational Developer, DSC

•Identify and discuss challenges in managing a diverse student cohort in your class
•Translate the principles of Inclusive Teaching into your practice
•Design activities that incorporate alternative teaching strategies.

See also:
Inclusive Teaching http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/inclusive

Workshop 4: Teaching in Next Generation Learning Spaces

Thembi Mason, Educational Developer and Jon Hurford, Senior Advisor Learning & Teaching (Art)

•Identify the characteristics of a Next Generation Learning space
•Locate relevant resources and discuss approaches to teaching and the use of technology in these spaces

See also:
Next Generation Learning Spaces http://www.rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=xnbgfx4a17h3
Teaching with Technology http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/technology

Workshop 5: Connecting courses to content

Bernadene Sward, Liaison Librarians and Anne Lennox, University Library

•Make the most of library licensed learning and teaching resources, open access and creative commons content.

See also:
Library Learning Repository http://www.rmit.edu.au/library/learningrepository
School Liaison Librarians http://www.rmit.edu.au/library/librarianshttp://www.rmit.edu.au/library/librarians

Workshop 6: Teaching students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds

Barbara Morgan, Study Learning Center

•Discuss the challenges facing students from diverse learning backgrounds
•Identify and integrate teaching strategies that address linguistic and cultural differences in the classroom.

See also:
Study and Learning Centre http://www.rmit.edu.au/studyandlearningcentreFinal Session

Workshop 7: RMIT Peer Partnerships: supported professional development for continuous improvement in teaching

Angela Clarke and Dallas Wingrove, Senior Research Fellows

•Find a focus for the observation of your teaching
•Provide sensitive and constructive feedback for a colleague
•Establish and build networks of professional relationships with DSC sessional teaching staff.

See also:
Peer Partnerships http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/peerpartnerships

Workshop 8: Flexible delivery, Blackboard Collaborate & Google Sites

Erika Beljaars-Harris, Howard Errey and Andrea Wallace, Educational Developers, DSC

•Use iPads and other mobile devices for teaching and learning
•Use and manage Blackboard Collaborate
•Setup and manage Google Sites.

See also:
Teaching with Technology http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/technology
DevelopME http://www.rmit.edu.au/staff/professionaldevelopment/training

School workshops: Talking about Learning and Teaching

School Senior Advisors of Learning and Teaching with School Liaison Librarians and School representatives

•Identify issues surrounding learning and teaching practice in your School
•Locate key learning and teaching resources at RMIT
•Discuss ways in which you can contribute and feel included in a collegial and supportive environment.

Final Workshop: CES and feedback

Ruth Moeller, Lecturer in Education and Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching, College of Design and Social Context

The final workshop for the day focused on what academic and teaching staff will be encountering now students have returned for remainder of the year.

See also:
FAQs about CES http://www.rmit.edu.au/ssc/ces/faq

As you can see from the range of what was covered (and with an hour limit for each workshop) the conversations have only just begun.

We have time to prepare well for our end of year symposium, continue constructive conversations in the Schools and time to develop a firm plan for ongoing learning and teaching support for sessional staff beyond this semester.

A few more useful links for Sessional Staff at RMIT University 

Quick guide for sessional staff http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/sessional

Professional Development Calender http://www.rmit.edu.au/staff/professionaldevelopment/calendar

Learning and Teaching Unit http://www.rmit.edu.au/teaching

Senior Advisors, Learning and Teaching http://www.rmit.edu.au/dsc/learningteaching

If you have any questions please share them in the comments section or contact me (Kellyann Geurts) or your School’s Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching.

Don’t forget you can subscribe to have the tomtom delivered to your email as soon as it’s published and you can follow us on facebook: www.facebook.com/TeachingTomTom.

RMIT Learning & Teaching Expo 2013

Guest post: Penny Mercer, Project Advisor, Learning and Teaching Unit, RMIT University.

Click to open the RMIT Learning & Teaching Expo 2013 page.

The Learning and Teaching Expo is an opportunity to showcase the excellent work of our dedicated teaching staff. It is a time for all of us to reflect on how we might enhance the student experience, reimagine our teaching and network with colleagues.

This year’s Expo takes the theme of “Inspiring teaching, inspiring learning.” Come along and hear what your colleagues have done to improve student learning outcomes, bring along your own experiences, or questions for discussion time. The Expo eLearning journey will allow all staff to identify a point of interest from which further learning opportunities can be explored.

Come along and hear from our invited keynote speakers about what is happening in the tertiary education sector, hear what your colleagues have done to improve student learning outcomes and bring along your own experiences or questions for discussion time.

Day 1: Tuesday 3 September – 12pm to 4.30pm, with lunch from 1pm to 2pm
Day 2: Wednesday 4 September – 9am to 1pm, with lunch from 1pm to 2pm
Venue: Design Hub, City campus.

Click here (or on the image above) to see the 2013 program and register now to attend (RMIT login required).

We look forward to seeing you there!

Making Twitter work for your students

Posted by: Megan McPherson, Project Manager, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

Megan tweets for the Not a Waste of Space Project @NaWoS and personally @MeganJMcPherson. The tomtom tweets @teachingtomtom.

Greater Blue-eared Starling
(cc) Flickr, Rodrigo Sala, 2009.

Late last semester, Dr Narelle Lemon presented her research on using Twitter in her pre-service Education classes for the first of the New Learning Spaces Research Network. We tweeted with the hashtag #NLSRh and you can find the full Storify of the presentation here.

There are over 3 million Australian Twitter accounts (and over 500 million across the world). Twitter’s use in educational contexts (K-12, TAFE and HE) as a tool that facilitates collaborative approaches to professional learning is recognised in the approach taken by the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. If you haven’t got on to Twitter yet, they would be a good place to start because of the wide range of learning and teaching resources that they tweet. Follow them: @aitsl.

Narelle used Twitter with her Education students within the framework of her curriculum that incorporates visual art practices in the teaching of all school subjects.

Twitter is a tool that allows Narelle a space to support student learning in the realms of:

  • professional practice
  • communication, networking and communities of practice
  • the prevalence (and pitfalls) of social media in schools.

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More broadly, Narelle quickly realised the need to teach her cohort about the notion of a  ‘digital footprint’ for all users of social media.

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Narelle spoke about how her students thought about using Twitter in their personal lives. She wanted to change a common perception about social media and capitalised on transferring social media skills from a personal domain to a professional one. Narelle was keen to realign their use of Twitter in this aspect to be about their professional learning as practicing teachers. Updating skills, knowledge and application in teaching practice through communication and networking within and outside students’ course, school and practice boundaries are essential qualities to success in the profession.

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Narelle emphasised the role she plays in her class in scaffolding and modelling aspects of using social media. This included using different devices including phones and tablets. Most importantly, she described her experience in scaffolding the notion of a digital footprint to her students as prospective teachers and pre-service teachers in schools on their teaching rounds.

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She emphasized mutual respect, using a professional profile description and appropriate images for students twitter accounts.

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After doing the basics with students, Narelle found that connections were being established between the four class groups on different campuses. Conversations were taking place inside and outside the class within different years of the Education student cohort and connections with established practitioners were being formed.

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Students were able to show their work to each other, research topics, share leads and contacts with each other, and teach each other social media skills.

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Using social media challenged students to consider their online representation but also gave them a digital network to support them in preparation for and during their teaching rounds.

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Narelle used hashtags as identifiers. Students could identify one another easily with the hashtags: #visart12 (2012) #visart13 (2013) as course identifiers. Image

Click here to read more about Narelle’s experiences in using Twitter in her courses.

For RMIT Staff, If you’re thinking about using social media in your course, why not try a DevelopMe course to get you started: Digital Networks: Social Media for Research & Teaching.

Also, RMIT University’s Social Media Policy is useful to check out before you start using Twitter in your class.

Share your thoughts about using Twitter and social media tools in the classroom in the comments!

Recently on the tomtom:

Inclusive Conversation Series

In the first of the conversation series to launch the Inclusive Teaching and Assessment Practices Project, Professor James Arvanitakis’ presentations are now online:

  • Inclusion and Exclusion – personal perspectives as a learner and teacher. In this session James models his practice of using collaborative activities in large spaces. http://rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=nq508c9rbszh1
  • Pirate Pedagogy – Killing your Powerpoints and engaging students – teach like a pirate: http://rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=23f56eiprefh1
  • Inclusive teaching: Strategies using social media – James outlines how innovative pedagogical approaches, such as those using social media, can include those most likely to be excluded while encouraging already advanced students to thrive: http://rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=ljfym4fwv28h1

Please contact the Project Team if you have any questions: http://rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=d4eojzqwyf9

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