Category Archives: assessment

The unbundling of higher education: Breaking down the whole.

(cc) Flickr user: Mike Linksvayer

(cc) Flickr user: Mike Linksvayer

Posted by: Erika Beljaars-Harris, Educational Developer, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

There’s another movement unfolding in the background of fee deregulation that we need to be aware of: the unbundling of higher education. As Professor Jim Barber (former Vice Chancellor, University of New England) explains, “The concept of ‘unbundled’ education refers to the emergent practice of allowing students to pay for those services, and only those services, that they actually require.” Similar thoughts are being raised in the UK, as this Times Higher Education article points to a report that recommends government funding follow the student and not the institution.

Think of it as the difference between a set menu (preselected courses served at a fixed time and price) compared to free choice from the menu and dishes from any other restaurant. In the higher education arena, this might mean choosing a course from a university, but not paying for the facilities and services offered. The facilities students may choose to not use include the cafeteria and other academic and support services. What’s being called a ‘pick-and-mix’ approach means that students pay for certain facilities on a fee-for-service basis. Which leads to student choosing which parts they want to use and therefore pay for. Choice has always been seen as something students value in a program of study (look at electives, streams, majors, study-abroad and cross-institutional studies for instance) but this movement might see multi-institution degrees become a path that more students select.

According to Harvard Business School Professor Clayton Christensen, the unbundling of higher education is a form of ‘disruptive innovation‘. Christensen explains it as “a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of the market and then relentlessly moves upmarket, eventually displacing established competitors.”  An example of this already exists in the form of consumers (students) having the ability to receive credentials via RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) through previous work experience or a MOOC. For universities, the unbundling of higher education is a form of disruptive innovation. It is enabling the consumer (student) with the ability to choose subjects and courses from a university that can be delivered on campus, online or both, without the added fees for services and facilities that they may not need nor use. As a consumer (student), this unbundling provides the ability to secure services the individual does want, and not pay for what they don’t want. This hopefully translates to cheaper, but just as, or more effective degrees and experiences selected from a wider pool of providers.

The movement towards unbundling has started. Georgia Institute of Technology is admitting students into a low-fee postgraduate degree. Students are taking courses from the University Without Walls, a university fully supported by the University of Massachusetts, that enables students to design their program of study.

The goals of unbundling of higher education are to increase the quality of lectures, enable more individualised instruction, offer an increase in choice to students and most importantly, provide it all at a lower cost. What it might mean for academics and universities is to take stock of what they deliver well online, in blended environments and on-campus: student expectations aren’t going to do anything except rise.

To be honest, I Iike this movement, I like the goals that this movement professes to be aligning towards. I will be watching those universities to see who gets it right (and wrong) in this evolution of higher education.

Share your thoughts on unbundling in the comments…

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Google Apps for Education

Posted by: Howard Errey, Educational Developer, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

Last chance registrations for RMIT Staff: A special lunchtime workshop on Blended Learning at RMIT Wednesday, 2 July, 12.30pm, in the Swanston Academic Building featuring Professor Geoffrey Crisp (Dean, Learning and Teaching). Email Rosemary.Chang@rmit.edu.au for details.

During April I had the good fortune to attend the Google Education Summit in Sydney. It was really useful to see the scale and variety of what is going on as well as becoming aware of some of the things on the horizon.

One focus was helping teachers organise and solve problems. There were several sessions on using YouTube for organising, streaming and editing videos. One of the eye openers was seeing how easy the video editor was to use. 67% of courses in the College of Design and Social Context report they are already using YouTube so it will be useful to be able to share more of this functionality. Fortunately, like Blogger and Hangouts (recently switched on at RMIT via Google+), YouTube is on the RMIT roadmap for our suite of apps. You can find out more here.

I saw some excellent work being done with Google Sites, from using it as a low level learning management system, to enabling sharing across different sites and platforms. This seemed particularly useful for teachers needing to structure their online activities with large numbers of students. Many of the sessions were about Add-ons in Google Docs and Google Sheets enabling tools such as Doctopus that can combine with Google Drive and Sites. For example teachers can distribute different documents across different student groups into their Google Drives. I have since been trying out some of the Google Docs add-ons such as EasyBib for adding bibliographic references from the web.

Another session I enjoyed was an informal talk with four Google engineers who talked a lot about their favourite apps and were reassuring about Google wanting to be improving the experience for a number of the issues that we have had (for me it was better organising of shared files). The biggest push however was improving the mobile experience. Already we are seeing this with the apps for Drive and Sheets.

It was also eye-opening to go to a session on Google culture.  Here’s their ‘10 things we know to be true‘, formulated in the company’s first years:

  1. Focus on the user and all else will follow.
  2. It’s best to do one thing really, really well.
  3. Fast is better than slow.
  4. Democracy on the web works.
  5. You don’t need to be at your desk to need an answer.
  6. You can make money without doing evil.
  7. There’s always more information out there.
  8. The need for information crosses all borders.
  9. You can be serious without a suit.
  10. Great just isn’t good enough.

Did you know Google was originally called Backrub? (‘Just let me Backrub that for you…’ rippled around the room.)

The main feature is that Google is led by a ‘nothing is impossible’ attitude. When Google Maps (invented in Australia) was introduced many staff were skeptical as it seemed so far away from their core business. At the same time one of the founders was saying ‘Why not map the oceans or Mars as well?’ Both have become Google projects in the meantime.

A screenshot showing false-colour elevation of Olympus Mons on Mars

A screenshot showing false-colour elevation of Olympus Mons on Mars.

An inspiring keynote was given by Jenny Magiera who works in a Chicago public school where they have recently replaced Apple iPads with Nexus tablets. It takes only a few seconds (versus several hours per iPad) for a teacher to set up each Nexus, as demonstrated by Jenny’s students in the video leading this post. An interesting change of direction given that Jenny is also an Apple Distinguished Educator.

One session I thought was about learning analytics was called Making Sense of Data. It is a free online course Google makes available. The session involved taking us through the course as a way of learning Google’s data tools:

What was really impressive though was the learning design of this short course. Quizzes are offered up front, and then learning exercises are offered if you are not sure of the answers. You can learn about and try some of the course here or do the full course with the Google teachers here.

I also understood for the first time the value of Chromebooks which are essentially browser-based devices with a keyboard and touchscreen. By using the Chrome browser with all the plugin extensions available and combining this with all the capabilities in Google Drive and other Google platforms such as Maps and YouTube, so much can be done purely online.I am beginning to wonder about the value of the Mac I recently bought, compared with a Chromebook which retails for about one fifth of the price.

The next Google Summit is scheduled for Melbourne on 22 – 23 September. It would be terrific if some others from RMIT could benefit from the perspective that attending one of these summits enables. In talking with the organisers they would love to customise a summit for tertiary providers, so I will also be watching that space.

If you want to keep up to date with our project, follow us at www.whatonearth14.wordpress.com. We have a number of new posts showing RMIT teachers and students at work.

Share your thoughts about using Google’s tools in the comments section!

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Twitter: @teachingtomtom and

Learning & teaching for sustainability– naturally

Guest Post: Dr Jude Westrup, Senior Advisor, Strategic Initiatives, RMIT University.

Click the image to view The Learning and Teaching for Sustainability toolkit [PDF, 812 KB, 27 pages]

Click the image to view The Learning and Teaching for Sustainability toolkit [PDF, 812 KB, 27 pages]

Following Margaret Blackburn’s post in early 2013, I responded in a comment that it was ‘…great to see sustainability and environmental responsibility made explicit in our graduate attributes…’ What this means is that whatever the program of study, graduates of RMIT University will have engaged in processes to develop their abilities to recognise environmental and social impacts and to provide leadership on sustainable approaches to complex problems. The page on the graduate attribute Environmentally aware and responsible (#3 of 6) gives some suggestions of how this might look in a program. Appropriate to their level of study, students will:
•                Recognise the interrelationship between environmental, social and economic sustainability
•                Appraise and critique context-appropriate sustainability measures
•                Take responsibility for critical decision-making in ensuring sustainable outcomes
•                Appropriately apply their environmental and sustainability literacy in a highly diverse range of contexts.
For interested teachers and academics (especially those involved in course and program reviews, amendments or developments) the Learning and Teaching for Sustainability (LTfS) project can help you map this attribute and there are many excellent curriculum development and refreshment resources already available on the LTfS website  and includes the recently produced LTfS Toolkit for curriculum development, consisting of templates and workshop activity sheets.
Sustainability is undergoing a renaissance within the international and national tertiary sector as it relates to professional, industry and community priorities. Several LTfS components of RMIT’s Sustainability Action Plan are being reinvigorated while others are being developed for the first time. Through the Office of the Dean – Learning & Teaching (Academic Portfolio) a university-wide, year-long LTfS project is flourishing, with curriculum development, professional development (PD) and LTfS opportunities for staff being the main foci.
In terms of PD, staff will be able to access resources for LTfS curriculum development and evaluation via the LTfS website, a Google Site for informal (within RMIT) sharing of ideas, the Sustainability Subject Guide (RMIT Library) and other resources collated within RMIT’s Learning Repository.

Gallery of RMIT Graphs

LTfS sits within a broader suite of sustainability projects at RMIT.

RMIT Vietnam already has sustainability resources, such as an Environmental Policy in place.

We have contributed to the International Sustainability Literacy Index (currently in development), the United Nations Higher Education for Sustainable Development portal and the National Education for Sustainability (Office of Learning & Teaching) website. RMIT is a key contributor to these sites and initiatives.The national Education for Sustainability Tertiary Forum was held at LaTrobe University in February which linked staff at Universities in NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. Detailed outcomes and actions are available on the Education for Sustainability website.

We have ongoing national participation with groups such as ACTS (Australasian Campuses Toward Sustainability) and AAEE (Australian Association for Environmental Education). Both of these groups have conferences in Hobart in November which staff are encouraged to explore, attend and contribute to.
A range of RMIT resources exist for teachers, lecturers and academic developers.

A range of RMIT resources exist for teachers, lecturers and academic developers. Click on the image to see more.

All Colleges in Melbourne and the Sustainability Group in Vietnam are involved in linking LTfS curriculum development with the Global Learning by Design (2014-2016) major project and other strategic Program and Course development and delivery initiatives (such as the AQF Program and Course Guide alignments and Undergraduate and Postgraduate Program reviews). A workshop, Introduction to Learning & Teaching for Sustainability will be available to all staff from Semester 2 in the DevelopMe PD program and online, modular resources are under development. Social media, digital learning and blog communications channels are also being explored and developed.During the RMIT Learning & Teaching Expo in September 2014 students, alumni and staff from across RMIT will present an interactive Q&A style LTfS colloquium. This session will explore key issues in sustainability of relevance to staff and students across our campuses.

The creation of a dedicated RMIT Teaching Award (P9: Graduate Learning Outcomes), for curriculum developments or initiatives that enhance one of RMIT’s graduate attributes, will further raise the profile of LTfS and enhance learning and teaching practices across RMIT.

To close on the topic of awards, the 2014 Green Gown Awards Australasia is now open and the deadline for all submissions is 4pm Tuesday 5 August 2014. A team in Landscape Architecture were finalists last year with their project looking at green roof projects.
Are there teams out there ready to have a shot at the 2014 awards?
Share your thoughts and questions about sustainability on campus in the comments section!
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Patterns for Change and Innovation

Posted by: Spiros Soulis, Senior Advisor, Learning & Teaching, RMIT University.

Click on the image to visit the GLbD site.

Click on the image to visit the GLbD site.

RMIT is a global university of technology and design but how does this translate into our programs and courses? Are they truly global? And are we keeping pace with the changes being forced upon Higher Education?  Changes that are very much driven by technology and online delivery.

Global Learning by Design (GLbD) is a major project of the University that is hoping to address and deliver on these questions. The idea is that programs will be designed for delivery in multiple locations using multiple channels: face-to-face, blended or fully-online.

So how does GLbD propose to do this?  We’ve set up Curriculum Design Teams made up of academic and teaching leads, teaching staff, educational developers, representatives from the Library and Study and Learning Centre as well as production specialists from the Office of the Dean, Learning & Teaching. It’s about bringing these stakeholders together from the start, providing a holistic approach to program development. Not a new concept in designing curriculum, but one that makes sense.

There are many innovative approaches to teaching and learning across RMIT that have resulted in rich student learning experiences. But what we have not been able to do is consistently capture this work and share it! Making it available to other disciplines and Colleges is how this good work can have a ripple effect. GLbD is putting its effort into capturing Curriculum Design Patterns and building a repository for all to access and use.

Avoiding a business-as-usual approach, we’re using particular principles of program management methodologies such as Agile and Lean. These principles have been around for a long time and are now becoming more commonplace in Higher Education.

Information on Global Learning by Design can be found here along with a list of all the Colleges’ projects for 2014. If you are interested in how you could get involved in GLbD, contact your Deputy Head/Dean Learning & Teaching. We’ll be posting an update on the work from specific Curriculum Design Teams later in the year.

Share your thoughts and questions about the project  in the comments section!
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Discourse diversity across L&T cultures

This week’s post comes to us via Karen Dellar, Barbara Morgan, Alison Brown and the team at the Study and Learning Centre at RMIT University.

Making the implicit, explicit – discourse structures across cultures

Most students initially find the transition to academic discourse and writing styles challenging. This transition can be more problematic when students are new to the Australian educational environment. Many international students are unfamiliar with lecturers’ expectations and visit the Study and Learning Centre’s busy drop in service for assistance with academic writing.

One student who is now receiving credits and distinctions recently reflected on her previous failure in a number of courses. We asked her what it was that helped her achieve better marks. She said quite simply: ‘I now know what they want!’

Acknowledging diversity – similarities and differences

This student’s experience typifies the challenges often faced by students in not knowing what is expected when they transition to study in a new culture. The first step towards creating a truly inclusive learning environment is to acknowledge the similarities and differences across learning cultures (and there are many) and then to make the differences explicit. Key differences relate to  discourse styles and expectations upon the reader-writer relationships. The way we shape or tell a story depends upon our cultural and linguistic context and the unspoken patterns we have learnt.

Across cultures there are different expectations of how texts are structured. We expect that all texts have a similar framework to our own…until we are faced with something different. It is surprising to realise how much of our knowledge of text organisation is implicit and culturally specific. English language readers have an expectation about how quickly you get to the point, and when you do, how explicitly this is done; the order that concepts are introduced; the amount of preamble or background that is necessary; the amount of repetition that is effective or the extent of digression that is permissible. As teachers we expect our students to conform to these expectations.

In the words of an international student:

In the Subcontinent (Pakistan and India) the way we are taught to structure our essays is, we don’t come to the point directly: we have to develop this major build-up, before coming to the point…otherwise our lecturer won’t think we have put in enough effort…but over here the thing was that ‘bang’ – go to the point directly and then you can start explaining… (Learning Lab International Student Stories)

model1_image

Model 1: Direct, linear approach. Here’s the flower. These are the main points…

Assignment structure is culturally specific

It is often assumed that students whose first language is not English have difficulty with their

Model 2. Here's the garden. Let me take you for a walk and I'll show you something..

Model 2: Explanation before getting to the main point. Here’s the garden. Let me take you for a walk and I’ll show you something…

studies because of their language. This is not the full picture. What is commonly overlooked is that students from different cultural backgrounds are often unaware of the academic expectations of their new educational culture. In particular, the discourse structure can be unfamiliar and different to what they know.

The models here give a visual representation of two common ways of structuring academic writing across cultures.

Model 1 is a simple representation of the approach to organising material in the Australian educational context. The student is expected to present the main point first, followed by explanation and analysis.

Model 2 is another representation of what is common in many other cultures. In this model the student builds a case through background information, explanation and analysis and finally presents the main point.

Put simply, the measures for ‘good writing’ in an Australian university are often quite different from the students’ previous experience. International students are often disappointed at their poor marks in first year as they take some time to work out what is required. In the case above, the student repeated first year having learnt this lesson the hard way. A better solution would be for students to be explicitly taught what is expected and for it to be acknowledged that their understanding of academic writing on arrival may be different to what we expect.

For more on helping your students structure their assignments visit RMIT’s Learning Lab. For diverse cohorts a good starting point is International Student Stories. As well, you will find resources on assignment genres that you can use in-class and direct students to for self-study.

References:

Arkoudis, S & Tran, L 2010, ‘Writing Blah, Blah, Blah: Lecturers’ Approaches and Challenges in Supporting International Students’, International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 169 -178.
Fox, H 1994, ‘Listening to the World. Cultural Issues in Academic Writing ‘, National Council of Teachers of English, USA.
Ramburuth, P 2009, ‘The impact of culture on learning: exploring student perceptions’, Multicultural Education and Technology Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 182 – 195.
Ryan J & Carroll J (eds) 2005, Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All, Routledge, London.

Share your thoughts about discourse diversity and your tips for conveying your expectations in the comments section!

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Beyond Blackboard Course Shells: “What on earth are they using?”

Posted by: Howard Errey, Educational Developer
John Benwell, Principal Advisor, Learning and Teaching, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

From a learning and teaching perspective it’s hard to think of a more important system in a modern university than its Learning Management System (LMS).

Alongside (and sometimes instead of) the physical experience of a campus, its buildings and facilities, a student now navigates an online set of hierarchies through the LMS.

There’s a great new tool available for RMIT staff that allows you to see what a student is seeing at the current point in time.

At RMIT, our implementation of Blackboard (‘myRMIT’) currently shows students that course surveys are about to close, deadlines for exchanges are coming, the availability of financial support, upcoming study skills workshops and various other announcements from whole-of-University groups.

And all of that is before they see any announcements, course materials or assessment links in their Program or Course.

There’s a renewed scrutiny on just how well and how widely myRMIT is being used by academics. Statistics showed that many courses have very low usage but there are notable exceptions and as that Swiss Army Knife expression goes, ‘pockets of good practice’. We knew anecdotally and from Program Managers that a number of other technologies were being used within and alongside the Blackboard environment.

This led our project team to ask “Well, what on earth are they using?” and a Learning and Teaching Investment Fund (LTIF) proposal to answer this question was developed. This Q&A explains some of the background to the project:

What do you think might be discovered by the project?

I think we will find a diversity of online tools that are not evidenced by the statistics. I think we will find new ways academics are using educational technologies for learning and teaching. We will discover why Blackboard’s capabilities fall short of the requirements of the creative and design disciplines and why designers/architects/artists take to alternate platforms.

I hope we will also find that staff are using many technologies in their teaching, but are simply not providing the links in Blackboard. Using the approved channel for assessment and course material has a number of advantages. It provides an enterprise-grade archive and ensures there’s a course ‘memory’ to name just a couple of benefits.

But it’s a bit like asking why people drive around in different types of cars. We look for a car that fits our requirements. At the moment I suspect some feel ‘illicit’ if they’re using tools like Pinterest, Facebook, Instagram, Tumblr or Google Sites to organise or run aspects of their course.

Think of it from the university’s point of view. We spend a lot of money on the LMS, and we want to see staff using it. A large organisation has to keep everyone happy and at the same time be adaptable. Yet we have different people and school personalities in a myriad of disciplines. So the reality is not all black and white in terms of teaching technologies. One size seems to not fit all.

One of the issues is that statistics are not analytics. What is being done with the data?

With the LMS we have never had a measure of how much it was being used. A considerable amount of our budget is being spent on the LMS and of course the university would like reporting back on its usage. However the only statistics we have are hits per course per student. This tells us very little. Yet there is a lot more going on that we know about. Staff and students are always working online – so what are they doing? This is what we set out to find out in the project.

Judgements are being made on the above statistics. There is no doubt that RMIT has patchy LMS usage, but we also know that so much more is going on.

Why is the LMS used so little is some places?

Blackboard is complex and can be difficult to use. I liken it to an old 16mm film projector. The films are what people want to see, but the projector requires a licensed operator. In the same manner, the LMS is not important; it’s the content that is. With a lack of operational understanding of the LMS, it often gets treated as just a document store. Unless lecturers are aware of what online activities can be achieved and the value to their teaching and the students’ learning, efforts beyond the use of myRMIT as a filing cabinet are hard to get excited about.

What influence would you like the project to have?

It would be a great outcome if the project discovered school/discipline specific learning technologies and how they added value to learning and teaching. We need a range of technologies that match the diversity of the university’s disciplines. We know we can’t have everything, yet we need to find some middle ground.

The imminent arrival of Google Classroom could change everything...

The imminent arrival of Google Classroom could change everything…

We also need statistics for all of the learning technologies we use, to enable meaningful learner analytics and of course to provide evidence we are using them and that they are worth paying for.

Do you see some middle ground with the suite of Google Apps?

There are quick wins for all with Google sites. The fact that RMIT students have Google accounts is an exciting and under-utilised aspect in all of this. The imminent arrival of Google Classroom could change everything.  Designers don’t want to follow what has happened before. They are not followers. They want to research, change, innovate and create anew. To some, Blackboard has a last century feel. I am surprised that there is not more competition in the LMS marketplace.

I know we will discover an enormous diversity in learning technologies in use during this project and much more than just Blackboard shells in this project.

We’ll be back later in the year with an update on the project and we have a Part 2 of this post that goes into more depth about the concept of learner analytics, but for now we’d love to hear from staff directly (email us) or through the comments section.

If you want to keep up to date with our project, follow us at www.whatonearth14.wordpress.com

Share your thoughts on Learning Management Systems comments section!

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Being bold, being true – Knowing what you’re best to do

Guest Post: Associate Professor Debra Bateman, Faculty of Arts & Education, School of Education, Deakin University.

Late last year, as a guest of Dean of the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies (GUSS) Professor David Hayward and as part of an LTIF project on Next Generation Learning Spaces, Associate Professor Debra Bateman spoke to teachers and lecturers at RMIT about her own teaching identity and journey as an academic with a Q&A. The project team was keen to capture some of her thoughts and share them with a wider audience. In this post Deb outlines a few of the principles that underpin her teaching. The session was extremely well-received with many survey responses mentioning that Deb’s words energised and affirmed what these lecturers and teachers were doing in their teaching. 

We hope this post can have a similar effect on you at this busy time of the year!

Being bold, being true – Knowing what you’re best to do
(or my thoughts on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education)
 
SuperheroesThe best teachers in higher education are the ones who know what they are doing. Of course, that sounds quite simple, however to know what one is doing, in this context, is complex. You need to be able to juggle multiple pedagogical and curriculum balls in the air at any time, including:

·      Disciplinary knowledge.

·      The broken up bits of that disciplinary knowledge that are accessible to everyone, and subsequently scaffold deeper learning.

·      An approach that not only engages students, but also professionally and intellectually engages oneself, in order to participate in the learning process in a meaningful way.

·      Confidence in one’s academic identity.

·      An ability to articulate, from another different disciplinary knowledge such as education, the reasons you are doing what you are doing and how you are doing it. (Did you know, by the way, that in higher education we should be talking about andragogy rather than pedagogy?)

·      Opportunities to witness, assess and evaluate what is learned, and to make judgments about learning that affect how students are able to enter the world.

In my presentation at RMIT, I suggested that higher education teachers need to know themselves, and situated that idea in the works of Pat Thomson (2002) who talks about the ideas of virtual schoolbags. Whilst she was referring to the ‘stuff’ that students bring into a learning environment, which influence how and what they do, I suggest that teachers carry virtual school bags also. On top of the content they are expected to teach, they bring loads of experiences of the world and sophisticated thinking which ought to capitalise on the connections that are able to be made for students when delivering big ideas or abstract concepts. 

The fact that before I was a teacher and academic, I was a hairdresser might account for some of the very creative endeavours I pursue in teaching and learning. My background as a teacher in some challenging schools offers me a diverse set of strategies for engagement of resistant learners (and sometimes colleagues). Working to our strengths, offers students of all pursuits an enthused and committed experience in their learning.

I’m also pretty interested in Shulman’s notion of pedagogies of uncertainty (2005) and Rowan and Beavis’ notion of ‘playful pedagogies’ (never published but I heard them say it first). The idea of enabling students to take risks in their learning is powerful, and more importantly  exciting.

For different programs of studies, ‘risks’ can look quite different. In one of my classes, when teaching Civics and Citizenship, I ask students to come dressed as superheroes, and through a range of life-world related experiences they undertake a deep critical analysis of many of the taken-for-granted constructs of the caped wonders (though we also critique the capes from an OH&S perspective). The risks are many, including exposing a value or position of a societal issue, feeling like a fool as people stare at you on public transport (if you don’t do a quick change in a telephone booth), and participating in an embodied analysis, which draws upon cultural knowledge. However, the excitement provides the titillation to learn.

I’ve also thought a lot about ‘furtive teaching’. That’s taking risks with new strategies or using strategies in ways other than they were intended, with the fear of being caught. Part of furtive teaching is undertaking the act of teaching knowing that the risk is countered by the amount of preparation, consideration, research or rehearsal that you have done. In my experience, students have loved being part of my risks. And increasingly, other staff are enjoying them too. One staff-related risk was our representation of scholarship materials Screen Shot 2014-05-01 at 11.54.00 amthrough a blend of culture jam, flash mob or parody (see https://vimeo.com/38401190).

Be proud of who you are, and where you come from. Connect the who you are with the what you need to do. Teaching and learning are important aspects of higher education, which cannot be guided by a proliferation of best practice guides. Whilst scholarship can inform and enhance what it is that we do, what we do is part of who we are, what we know, and how we know. But, in a climate of increased accountability, be able to articulate all of those things, and more importantly publish them. Give licence to others to explore their teaching and learning perspectives in ways that up until now, have been fairly limited and narrow.

References:

Shulman, L. S. (2005). Pedagogies of uncertainty. Liberal Education, 91(2), 18-26.
Thomson, P. (2002). Schooling the Rustbelt Kids. Making the Difference in Changing Times. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

Deb tweets @debbateman
Share your thoughts about pedagogies and andragogies  in the comments section!
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Reflecting on reflection: Part 2

Posted by: Mary Ryan, Associate Professor and Higher Degree Research Coordinator in the Faculty of Education at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane. 

A/Prof Mary Ryan at the Inclusive Conversation Series March 2014 © RMIT University, 2014, Photographer: Margund Sallowsky.

A/Prof Mary Ryan at the Inclusive Conversation Series March 2014 © RMIT University, 2014, Photographer: Margund Sallowsky.

The project team thanks the Office of the Dean of Learning and Teaching and Associate Professor Andrea Chester, Deputy Pro Vice-Chancellor, Learning & Teaching, DSC for supporting the Inclusive Conversation Series.

(This post has been broken into two parts- click here to go to the previous post.)

4Rs of Reflection

Reporting and responding

Reflective learning is a wicked skill (Knight, 2007). It has slippery definitions, is seen differently by different people, and is often treated as omnipresent rather than teachable. My response to this issue has been to find out a bit more about it. I needed evidence about things like… What constitutes reflective learning? What are the conditions under which it can happen or is taught? What do people do in different disciplines? How can it be expressed? Is it assessable?

Relating

I started by drawing on my own experiences. I realised that in my own teaching I was making assumptions about students’ knowledge of how to write an effective text, their abilities to analyse and weigh up a situation, and their skills in identifying a key issue (for them) upon which to reflect. I soon became conscious of the need for a teaching intervention. I couldn’t leave this to chance – particularly for those students for whom English was not their first language or for those who were first in their family to attend university or who had entered university through pathways other than senior schooling. So I decided some serious research was needed to help me work out how this could be improved for students in higher education. Fortunately, the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) agreed that this was an important issue and they funded a project over two years.

Reasoning

I turned to learning theories such as Kalantzis and Cope’s Science of Learning through knowledge processes, Bloom’s taxonomy and others. A common factor across these theories was the view that learning was an active rather than passive process and that students can move from basic understandings to quite complex thinking skills of critical analysis and reasoning.  I scoured the literature on reflective learning and practice and found that it is generally accepted that there are levels of reflective thinking or learning, moving from basic identification of an issue, to dialogic thinking back and forth, to deep, transformative reflection that can change ideas or practice – hence the 4Rs that I’m using to reflect here (nothing like practicing what you preach). Plus I started to annoy plenty of colleagues at QUT – asking them about their own practices in teaching reflective learning. My colleague (Michael Ryan) and I developed the Teaching and Assessing Reflective Learning (TARL) Model: (See Figure 1: Populating the Pedagogic Field). The model considers the pedagogic field of higher

Populating the Pedagogic Field

Figure 1: Populating the Pedagogic Field (click to enlarge).

education as a space that enables increasingly more complex ideas and professional attributes to be attained (vertical axis) as students move through their degree (horizontal axis). It suggests that students can:

  • begin by reflecting on their own views and practices as a novice in the field,
  • incorporate the views and practices of others in the field,
  • reach the final goal of critically reflecting on self in relation to experienced colleagues and clients as a beginning professional.

The practical aspects of the model are the teaching patterns that are mapped to show at which point in a program they have been successful and the level of complex thinking that they can achieve. The benefits of this approach include minimising replication of activities across a program, ensuring that reflective activities are increasingly more sophisticated across a program and introducing a shared language for staff and students.

Reconstructing

I’ve learnt that a smorgasbord of reflective activities is not useful to develop levels of complexity across a program. I’ve learnt that we can’t make assumptions about students’ skills in this area. I’ve realised the importance of a shared language across programs and consistency in language within a course. Most importantly, I’ve learnt that higher education teachers really make a difference. If they prioritise and explicitly teach reflective learning, students can progress to those deep levels of self-reflection. New applications of this work have been in areas of peer review – teaching students how to write a reflective and useful review and how to respond reflectively to peer feedback; as well as teaching students how to evaluate university teaching and courses in a more reflective way as co-contributors to the learning experience. From here, I think I need to work more with academic staff in helping them to implement some of the great resources and strategies from the project.

References:

Knight, P 2007, Fostering and assessing ‘wicked’ competences, Milton Keynes, Open University.

Murphy, KR, 2011, ‘Student reflective practice – building deeper connections to concepts’, ASCD Express, Vol. 6, No. 25

Ryan, ME & Ryan, MC 2013, ‘Theorising a model for teaching and assessing reflective learning in higher education’, Higher Education Research & Development, vol 32, no. 5, pp. 244-257.

Ryan, ME, 2014, Teaching and Assessing Reflective Learning in Higher Education, Inclusive Conversation Series, RMIT, March 2014 presentation.

Share your thoughts on reflection in the comments section!

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Reflecting on reflection: Part 1

Posted by: Mary Ryan, Associate Professor and Higher Degree Research Coordinator in the Faculty of Education at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane. 

The project team thanks the Office of the Dean of Learning and Teaching and Associate Professor Andrea Chester, Deputy Pro Vice-Chancellor, Learning & Teaching, DSC for supporting the Inclusive Conversation Series.

(This post has been broken into two parts- click here to go to the next post where I apply the 4Rs to my own experiences.)

Reflective practice is often described as being as much a state of mind or attitude as it is a set of activities. It requires educators to assess themselves and their practice and as a result of this process become, “conscious agents in their own pedagogy” (Griffiths: 2010).

Screen shot 2014-04-15 at 11.45.45 AM

A/Prof Mary Ryan at the Inclusive Conversation Series March 2014 © RMIT University, 2014, Photographer: Margund Sallowsky.

My work as a teacher of undergraduate and postgraduate Education students for many years has shown me how much students can benefit from explicit teaching of critical reflection to improve their learning. This has motivated my work on developing students’ reflective learning capacities over several years — first as a teacher working directly with students and in the past few years supporting other teachers, program coordinators and support staff to develop a systematic curriculum model with practical strategies and resources that builds students’ capacities in reflective learning.

At the end of this page I’ve provided some resources that could help you in your teaching and in Part 2 I’ll share my reflections (on reflection) using this 4R model.

When educators reflect on their teaching, their practice improves. Students can also benefit when they reflect on their learning experience or practice. Murphy (2011) states the act of reflecting on an experience or critical incident, leads to students making deeper connections to the concepts they are learning beyond the rote memorisation or simple completion, resulting in students experiencing an ‘a-ha’ moment.

Reflective learning is a way for students to:

  • develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills

  • consider different possibilities and actions

  • link old ideas with new ones

  • stimulate creative solutions

  • encourage life-long learning

  • draw on evidence to plan future actions

  • improve practice

  • create cohesiveness across a course/program. (Ryan, 2014)

How can I integrate reflection into teaching and assessment?

Designing a practice of reflection means both clarifying the purposes it needs to serve and identifying opportunities for reflection in students’ work that are realistic and yet occur at the right intervals with sufficient depth to be meaningful (Murphy 2011).

At RMIT, there are a number of teaching staff who have introduced reflective practice into their curriculum in courses such as Fashion and Textiles, International Development (GUSS), and Media and Communication to name just a few. And there would be countless staff who use the word ‘reflection’ in a task or in assessment criteria. What makes our project special is the real examples of reflection shown within their discipline. These patterns have been linked (where appropriate) to professional standards for the accrediting bodies and plotted on a graph to

Populating the Pedagogic Field

Populating the Pedagogic Field

show how they increase in complexity, or how they move from simulated to real experiences. (See the figure: ‘Populating the Pedagogic Field’ to the right and click to expand.)

Some examples have been selected here from the Developing Reflective Approaches to Writing (DRAW) Wiki to illustrate how you could introduce reflective practice into the course. The patterns include teaching resources including annotated examples of reflective writing, and student blogs:

Analysing Reflective Texts (ART),

Mapping Critical Incidents – Foundation (MCIF)

Reflections Around Artefacts (RAA)

Reflection as a Professional Activity during Service Learning (RPA)

Resources:

The Developing Reflective Approaches to Writing (DRAW) Wiki: holds the teaching patterns and common resources for over 20 patterns that are being used in different disciplines. The DRAW website (http://www.drawproject.net)provides a short summary of the project and references.

References:

Knight, P 2007, Fostering and assessing ‘wicked’ competences, Milton Keynes, Open University.

Murphy, KR, 2011, ‘Student reflective practice – building deeper connections to concepts’, ASCD Express, Vol. 6, No. 25

Ryan, ME & Ryan, MC 2013, ‘Theorising a model for teaching and assessing reflective learning in higher education’, Higher Education Research & Development, vol 32, no. 5, pp. 244-257.

Ryan, ME, 2014, Teaching and Assessing Reflective Learning in Higher Education, Inclusive Conversation Series, RMIT, March 2014 presentation.

Share your thoughts on inclusive teaching and assessment in the comments section! Click here to read Part 2 of this post!

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Peer Partnerships: the professional development program that really resonates

Posted by:

Angela Clarke, Senior Research Fellow,
A/Prof Andrea Chester, Acting Deputy Pro Vice-Chancellor, Learning and Teaching
&
Dallas Wingrove, Senior Advisor, Learning and Teaching, Property, Construction and Project Management, 
College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University.

Rebekha Naim and Shayna Quinn are peer partners from the School of Media and Communication.

Rebekha Naim and Shayna Quinn are peer partners from the School of Media and Communication.

The RMIT Peer Partnerships program has been running for two years. Over that time the program has been successfully implemented in 17 Schools/centres and units across campuses in Australia and Vietnam. There have been over 195 peer partners and 24 leaders who have participated. The response from academic staff has been overwhelmingly positive, as evidenced by the following comments:

*One of the most positive and enriching professional development experiences I have had in nearly ten years at RMIT. 

*Best PD ever! To be great, you have to want to be great, there is always room for improvement as an academic…this is a great structure for reflective practice in teaching and learning.

*Very positive and insightful. Helped me conceive and expand possibilities for my own teaching practice. Sparked new ideas.

*This was a valuable program, which fostered teaching skills in ways both practical and theoretical.

*I found peer partnerships to be a really effective way of learning and reflecting on practice. It was particularly rewarding as a sessional teacher as many other opportunities aren’t open to us so it made me feel part of the RMIT team – for possibly the first time – which is really important to me.

These responses from our teaching staff suggest that the RMIT Peer Partnerships program is truly resonating with our staff and is having a positive impact. This is due to many factors including the structure of the program and the underpinning principles which foreground voluntary participation, reciprocal exchange and confidentiality. Many academics feel that this program is filling a professional gap in their academic work.  The process, which focuses on reciprocal observation of teaching practice, has generated meaningful professional conversations about teaching and learning and is fostering collegiate communities of practice within Schools/units.  For some staff who are seeking promotion or a teaching award, Peer Partnerships have offered a safe way in to the experience of peer observation and feedback for continuous improvement.

The program is open to all academic teaching staff, including sessionals and caters for early, mid and experienced professional development needs. The program has been specifically devised for implementation within the local context of a School.

We are now in our third year of implementation. This year we are very pleased to announce that two College representatives will co lead Peer Partnerships with us: Laurine Hurley in the College of Science, Engineering & Health and Tom Palaskas in the College of Business. We would like to welcome anyone who is interested in Peer Partnerships to contact dallas.wingrove@rmit.edu.au or angela.clarke@rmit.edu.au.

For further information visit our website www.rmit.edu.au/teaching/peerpartnerships.

Share your thoughts and questions in the comments section!
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